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Currently, there are multiple ZK-Rollups running on the Ethereum mainnet, including Polygon zkEVM and zkSync era. However, the majority of these ZK-Rollup projects have not implemented a decentralized prover. For example, in the beta mainnet of Polygon zkEVM, trusted aggregators are relied upon for submitting ZKPs, and zkSync era follows a similar approach.
While centralized provers are feasible when the number of ZK-Rollups is small, with the maturation of ZK scalability technologies, especially the gradual implementation of zkEVM in the next one to two years, the number of ZK-Rollups will experience significant growth. In the case of a massive number of ZK-Rollups, centralized provers will pose several problems:
- Firstly, the cost of provers is high, and maintaining a centralized prover cluster requires specialized equipment and facilities. Not every ZK-Rollup operator has the capability to maintain such a centralized prover setup. Therefore, we need professional miners to fulfill the computing power demand of the future massive ZK-Rollup ecosystem.
- Secondly, if there is only one prover, a single node failure could result in the inability to confirm transactions for the entire ZK-Rollup. We need a decentralized prover mechanism to encourage multiple miners to participate in the computation of a ZKP simultaneously and receive corresponding rewards.
- Lastly, we require a standardized ZKP optimization algorithm to enhance overall hardware efficiency.
As a highly decentralized public blockchain, Ethereum has become congested, and gas fees have become extremely expensive. Many Web3 applications, especially financial derivatives, games, social networks, and others, want to migrate to layer 2 or other public chains.
Actually, providing a high-performance and low-gas execution environment alone is not difficult, as some centralized solutions can easily achieve this. The challenge lies in maintaining a high level of decentralization while ensuring high performance and low gas fees.
In Lumoz's design, each Web3 application can have its dedicated ZK-Rollup and the freedom to choose a base chain. Currently, Lumoz supports four base chains: Ethereum, Lumoz, BNB Chain, and Polygon. This means developers can choose to deploy their ZK-Rollup on any of these four public chains.
To support the demand for massive hardware resources resulting from a large number of ZK-Rollups, Lumoz also provides a unified ZKP computing power marketplace, encouraging miners to generate ZKPs for these ZK-Rollups.
Lumoz promotes some new designs for this decentalized marketplace:
- Preventing malicious behaviours & better prover incentivization
- Modular and Optimized Proof Submission Design